The human like design and locomotion allow humanoids to perform complex motions. Humanoids are well suited for mobile manipulation tasks designed for humans like walking, accessing different types of terrain, navigating in complex environments such as environments with stairs and/or narrow passages, navigating through cluttered environments without colliding with objects, etc. In this work, we introduce an integrated approach that enables NAO humanoid to plan and successfully execute whole body motions including stepping over, climbing up/down obstacles, as well as climbing up/down straight staircase using only onboard sensing. NAO is able to walk on multiple floor surfaces such as carpet, tiles and wooden floors, it can transit between these surfaces while walking. However, large obstacles can still make it fall, as it assumes that the ground is more or less flat.
Many applications of video technology require multi-target tracking, for example for indoor or outdoor surveillance, intelligent vehicles, robotics, or experiments in biology. This book shows how specifica of targets influence the design of tracking methods. Four totally different types of targets are tracked, namely fruit flies (drosophila melanogaster), vehicles, pedestrians, and lane marks. The book presents methods for tracking of such targets under various recording settings (i.e. static, or moving cameras, monocular, binocular, or trinocular). In order to further improve the tracking performance, more specific methods are proposed and discussed for the different targets. This book starts with a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art multi-traget tracking methods. It is suitable for students or researchers who would like to have advise about tracking methods possibly applicable to their application, or who are contributing in the computer vision field to the design of tracking methods.
This book presents a hardware architecture for the Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) problem applied to embedded robots. The architecture is composed by highly specialized modules for robot localization and feature-based map building from images obtained directly from CMOS cameras in real time. The system is completely embedded on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device, where several hardware-orientated optimizations are exploited. The main modules of the architecture are the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the feature detection system based on the SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) algorithm. Additionally, this book also presents basic concepts about mapping and state-of-the-art algorithms for SLAM with monocular and stereo vision.
This manuscript addresses the problem of obstacle avoidance for semi- and autonomous terrestrial platforms in dynamic and unknown environments. Based on monocular vision, it proposes a set of tools that continuously monitors the way forward, proving appropriate road information in real time. Taking into account the temporal coherence between consecutive frames, a new Dynamic Power Management methodology is proposed and applied to a robotic visual machine perception, which included a new environment observer method to optimize energy consumption used by a visual machine. A remarkable characteristic of these methodologies is its independence of the image acquiring system and of the robot itself. This real-time perception system has been evaluated from different test-banks and also from real data obtained by two intelligent platforms. In semi-autonomous tasks, tests were conducted at speeds above 100 Km/h. Autonomous displacements were also carried out successfully.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Stereopsis (from stereo meaning solidity, and opsis meaning vision or sight) is the process in visual perception leading to the sensation of depth from the two slightly different projections of the world onto the retinas of the two eyes. The differences in the two retinal images are called horizontal disparity, retinal disparity, or binocular disparity. The differences arise from the eyes' different positions in the head. Stereopsis is commonly referred to as depth perception. This is inaccurate, as depth perception relies on many more monocular cues than stereoptical ones, and individuals with only one functional eye still have full depth perception except in artificial cases (such as stereoscopic images) where only binocular cues are present.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Ocular dominance columns are regions of neurons in the visual cortex that synapse with axons carrying transduced signals from either the left or right eye. The columns span multiple cortical layers, producing a striped pattern when the deeper levels are stained. Prior to birth, monocular transduction pathways are already established through a process known as Hebbian learning. Spontaneous retinal activity in one eye of the developing fetus leads to neuronal depolarization. Synapses that receive multiple inputs are more likely to propagate the signal, whereas errant connections will not be sufficient to trigger another action potential. Post-synaptic neurons that depolarize become permeable to calcium ions, if glutamate has been released by the pre-synaptic axon terminal. Calcium''s entry leads to a chemical process that strengthens the synapse, making it more likely to survive than other connections.
Who killed Nanna Birk Larsen? Through the dark wood where the dead trees give no shelter Nanna Birk Larsen runs…. There is a bright monocular eye that follows, like a hunter after a wounded deer. It moves in a slow approaching zigzag, marching through the Pineseskoven wasteland, through the Pentecost Forest. The chill water, the fear, his presence not so far away... There is one torchlight on her now, the single blazing eye. And it is here.... Sarah Lund is looking forward to her last day as a detective with the Copenhagen Police department before moving to Sweden. But everything changes when nineteen-year-old student, Nanna Birk Larsen, is found raped and brutally murdered in the woods outside the city. Lund’s plans to relocate are put on hold as she leads the investigation along with fellow detective Jan Meyer. While Nanna’s family struggles to cope with their loss, local politician Troels Hartmann is in the middle of an election campaign to become the new mayor of Copenhagen. When links between City Hall and the murder suddenly come to light, the case takes an entirely different turn. Over the course of twenty days, suspect upon suspect emerges as violence and political intrigue cast their shadows over the hunt for the killer. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Christian Rodska. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/macm/000614/bk_macm_000614_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Dieses leistungsstarke und kompaktes Golf-Entfernungsmesser mit 6-facher Vergrößerung, die Ihnen ganz in der Nähe und echtes Gefühl zu Ihrem Ziel gibt kann Sie sehen, die meisten Objekte eindeutig mit einer maximalen Reichweite von 600 Metern ohne näher zu kommen zu haben. Das kompakte und leichte Design ermöglicht es Ihnen, es zu nehmen, wohin Sie gehen, ideal für Golf, Jagd, Bauumfrage und Design und Exploration. Eigenschaften: Dieses Entfernungsmesser Eigenschaften der geringen Größe, geringes Gewicht und Einhandbedienung. Der Körper ist mit rutschfestem Weichgummi zu bieten komfortablen Benutzererlebnis gewickelt. Das Entfernungsmesser kann bis zu mehr Abstand von 600 m, 6-facher Vergrößerung mit voll mehrfach vergütete messen kann die Abbildungs ??klarer und wahr, die maximale Genauigkeit von ± 0,5 Metern machen bringen Sie schnell und präzise Messungen, ideal für Golf Fahnen Messen, Jagd, Bauumfrage und Design. Nimmt TOF (Time of Flight) Technologie, um die Multi-Funktions-Golf
This book introduces a new strategy for mobile robot navigation. The complete navigation strategy is based on local landmark detection. However, the work developed just shows the local navigation results. In this context, local artificial potential fields are used as a way to attract the mobile robot towards a local goal that can act as a passage point and a featured landmark. In order to acomplish with the desired objective, simple perception system and reactive control behaviours were implemented and tested. Concretely, a single on-robot camera system was used to infer the closer robot environment where free aproaching path was computed. Moreover, the proposed control strategy is based on on-line model predictive control techniques where only short prediction horizons are considered for dealing with reactive behaviours and dynamic environments.
MonocularFernglas aus Beständen der schwedischen Armee zum Teil von namhaften Herstellern wie CarlZeiss Jena Hensold etc. Einstellung der Sehstärke möglich. Mit Strichplatte zur Entfernungsmessung. 6fache Vergrößerung 30mm. Es handelt sich um einen gebrauchten Artikel. Solange die Funktion des Artikels gegeben ist besteht kein Reklamationsgrund. Herstellerwünsche können leider nicht berücksichtigt werden. Gewicht ca. 350 g
The 4th International Visual Field Symposium of the International Perimetric Society, was held on the 13-16 April 1980 in Bristol, England,at the occasion of the 6th Congress of the European Society of Ophthalmology. The main themes of the symposium were comparison of classical perimetry with visual evoked response, comparison of classical perimetry with special psychophysi cal methods, and optic nerve pathology. Understandably many papers dealt with computer assisted perimetry. This rapidly developing subgroup of peri metry may radically change the future of our method of examination. New instruments were introduced, new and exciting software was proposed and the results of comparative investigations reported. There have been many confusing statements in the literature on the relative value of perimetry and the registration of visual evoked responses. Several reports attempted to bring some clarity in this issue. There is reason for further comparative research. A number of papers dealt with special psychophysical methods, i.e. methods not using the simply monocular differential threshold. The old critical fusion frequency received new attention. Fundusperimetry was used for testing spatial summation. Acuity perimetry, binocular perimetry etc. showed that there exist many possibilities for examining visual function. At present it is not clear to us what exactly the place of these methods is in our diagnostic armament. However it is quite clear that some of them are promising and may lead to a further differentiation of perimetric methods.